Comparison of Epstein - Barr virus Antibodies in the serum of patients with Multiple Sclerosis and normal people in Sanandaj, Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Students Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Department of English Language, faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Department of Parasitology, faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the chronic inflammatory diseases of the Nervous system. The cause of the disease has not yet been clearly identified. Environmental factors and infections, including the Epstein - Barr virus (EBV), are hypothesized to be the cause of the disease. Our goal was to compare the serum antibody level against EBV in patients with MS and healthy people in Sanandaj, Iran.
Methods: In this case-control study, 100 patients with MS who were registered in the MS Society of Sanandaj and 204 gender matched healthy blood donors from the Sanandaj Blood Transfusion Organization (control group) who signed an inform consent were studied from 2015 to 2016. A 5 ml blood sample was obtained from all subjects and then after isolation of patients' sera, IgG antibodies against EBV-CA and EBNA-1 antigens were measured by ELISA method. Demographic data and the results of the tests were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-square test.
Results: EBNA-1 antigen was found in 92% of patient group and 91% of control group (P= 0.959). Serum anti EBV positivity was significantly higher among women (p=0.012). The EBV-CA antigen was  positive in 95% ofthe patient group and 90% of controls (p= 0.229). There was no significant gender difference for this test (p=0.115).
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the results of IgG antibodies against EBV in patients with MS and healthy controls in Sanandaj.

Keywords


 

 

1. Sisay S, Lozanoa L, Mickunas M, Fernández AQ, Palace J, Warnes G, et al. Untreated relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients show antibody production against latent Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) antigens mainly in the periphery and innate immune IL-8 responses preferentially in the CNS. J Neuroimmunol.  2017; 306:40-45.  doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.02.017

2. Hassani A, Corboy JR, AL-Salam S, Khan G. Epstein-Barr virus is present in the brain of most cases of multiple sclerosis and may engage more than just B cells. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2): e0192109. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192109

3. Laurence M, Benito-Leon J.  Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: Updating Pender's hypothesis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017; 16: 8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2017.05.009

4. Sahraian  MA, Sahebkar M, Dehghani R, Derakhshan-Jazari M, Kazemi-Moghadam V, Kouchaki E. Multiple sclerosis-A disease on a dramatically rising trend in Iran: Review of possible reasons. Iran J Neurol. 2017; 16(1): 34-40.

5. Eskandarieh S, Sistany Allahabadi N, Sadeghi M, Sahraian MA. Increasing prevalence of familial recurrence of multiple sclerosis in Iran: a population based study of Tehran registry 1999-2015. BMC Neurol. 2018; 18(1): 15.  doi: 10.1186/s12883-018-1019-2

6. Eskandarieh S, Heydarpour P, Elhami SR, Saharian MA.  Prevalence and Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2017; 46(5): 699-704.

7. Mousavizadeh A, Dastoorpoor M, Naimi E, Dohrapour K. Time-trend analysis and developing a forecasting model for the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, southwest of Iran. Public Health. 2018; 154:14-23.  doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.10.003

8. Moosazadeh M, Esmaeili R, Nasehi MM, Abedi G, Ahshari M, Farshidi F, et al. Prevalence of familial multiple sclerosis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Neurol. 2017; 16(2): 90-95.

9. Xiao D, Xingguang Y, Zhang N, Meiling O, Congcong G, Baohuan Z, et al. A meta-analysis of interaction between Epstein-Barr virus and HLA-DRB1*1501 on risk of multiple sclerosis. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 18083. doi: 10.1038/srep18083

10. Santiago O, Gutierrez J, Sorlozano A, De Dios Luna J, Villegas E, Fernandez O.  Relation between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: analytic study of scientific production. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010; 29(7): 857-66.   doi: 10.1007/s10096-010-0940-0

11. Pakpoor J, Disanto G, Gerber JE, Dobson R, Meier UC, Giovannoni G, et al. The risk of developing multiple sclerosis in individuals seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus: a meta-analysis. Mult Scler. 2013; 19(2): 162-6.  doi: 10.1177/1352458512449682

12. Levin LI, Mungar KL, O'Reilly EJ, Falk KI, Ascherio A. Primary infection with the Epstein-Barr virus and risk of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010; 67(6): 824-30.   

13. Ascherio A, Munger KL. Epstein-barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis: a review. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010; 5(3): 271-7.   doi: 10.1007/s11481-010-9201-3

14. Balfour HH, Sifakis F, Sliman JA, Knight JA, Schmeling OD, Thomas W. Age-specific prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection among individuals aged 6-19 years in the United States and factors affecting its acquisition. J Infect Dis. 2013; 208(8): 1286-93.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit321

15. Confavreux C, Vukusic S. Natural history of multiple sclerosis: a unifying concept. Brain. 2006; 129(Pt 3): 606-16.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit321

16. Karampoor S, Zahednasab H, Ataei Pirkpuh A, Monavari SHR, Ramagopalan S, Keyvani H. Serostatus of Epstein-Barr virus in Iranian MS patients. Acta Neurol Belg. 2016; 116(1):43-6.  doi: 10.1007/s13760-015-0496-y

17. Honarmand H, Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam M, Hatamian H, Roudbary A.  Possible Relations Between Epstein-Barr Virus Past Infection and Classic Multiple Sclerosis in Guilan, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015; 8(6): e15985.  doi: 10.5812/jjm.15985v2.